Current Affairs Summary With Quiz 30 April 2021

Supply Chain Resilience Initiative launched

India, Australia and Japan formally launched the Supply Chain Resilience Initiative
India, Australia and Japan formally launched the Supply Chain Resilience Initiative
On April 27, 2021, India, Australia and Japan formally launched the Supply Chain Resilience Initiative. The initiative was launched to counter the dominance of China in the Global Supply Chain. It aims to prevent disruptions in the supply chain as seen during the COVID-19 pandemic. The initiative will mainly focus on diversification of investment and digital technology adoption.

Objectives of Supply Chain Resilience Initiative

To increase Foreign Direct Investment and eventually turn the Indo-Pacific region into an “Economic Powerhouse”.
To build complementary relations between the partner countries
To build on the existential Supply Chain Network.

About Supply Chain Resilience Initiative

It was proposed by Japan.
It mainly aims to reduce the dependence on China.


According to the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), the share of Chinese imports into India stood at 14.5%. The Chinese imports dominate electronics, pharmaceuticals, automotive parts, chemicals, shipping and textiles. In Electronics alone China accounts for 45% of imports of India. During COVID-19, all these sectors were highly affected as India was heavily dependent on China for its raw materials especially in the field of Electronics and Pharmaceuticals.
The COVID-19 has revealed supply chain vulnerabilities and the monopolism enjoyed by China in the region.

Chinese moves

China recently formed an initiative with its Asian neighbours Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh to help them set up COVID-19 emergency supply reserves.
Also, the Sichuan Airlines of China recently suspended cargo flights to India that were taking crucial supplies of Oxygen concentrators to India.
Such belligerence (aggressive warlike behaviour) of China even during the COVID-19 pandemic has forced the countries to form the initiative.

Agriculture Infrastructure Fund crosses Rs. 8,000 crores mark

Galvanized Steel in The Agricultural Industry
The Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare recently announced that the Agriculture Infrastructure Fund recently crossed the Rs 8,000 crore mark. The Ministry has received 8,665 applications so far. The worth of these applications has amounted to Rs 8, 216 crores. Out of this, Rs 4, 000 crores have been sanctioned by the Ministry so far.

About the Applications and Sanctions

The states that received maximum help through the fund are Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, and Rajasthan.
The largest share of the sanctioned application was contributed by the following sectors:
  • Primary Agricultural Societies: 58%
  • Agri-Entrepreneurs: 24%
  • Individual Farmers: 13%

Agriculture Infrastructure Fund

In 2020, the Government of India established the Agriculture Infrastructure Fund to inject credit into agriculture and its allied activities.
It was launched as a part of Atma Nirbhar Bharat. The main objective of the fund is to make the farmers self-reliant.
Around One Lakh Crore of rupees was allocated for the fund.
It is to be implemented between 2020 and 2029.
The fund will be used to provide loans to the Marketing Cooperative Societies, Primary Agricultural Societies, Farmer Producers Organisation, Joint Liability Groups, Self Help Groups.
The fund is being provided for setting up warehouses, cold stores, silos, grading, packaging units, ripening chambers, etc.
The loans provided under the finds will receive an interest subvention of 3% per annum up to two crores of rupees. This interest subvention is available for a period of seven years.
The Agricultural Infrastructure Funds are managed by the Management Information System Platform.

The UK to allow driverless cars on roads.

We asked people if they would trust driverless cars
The United Kingdom has become the first country to announce regulation for the use of self-driving vehicles at low speeds.


The UK wants to be at the forefront in rolling out autonomous driving technology. The Government of the UK forecasts that around 40% of UK cars will have self-driving capabilities by 2035. This will create 38,000 jobs in the country.

What is the plan?

The Government of the UK has been working on the highway code for the use of self-driving vehicles. The Ministry of Transport is, to begin with, Automated Lane Keeping Systems (ALKS).

About the Regulations

The speed limit of the ALKS is to be set at 37 miles per hour.
The ALKS shall drive itself in a single lane.


According to the UK Government, the technology will help reduce accidents caused due to human errors. 85% of accidents in the UK are caused due to human errors.

How do Self Driving Vehicles work?

A self-driving vehicle is fully autonomous. No driver is required for the safe operation of the vehicle. Self-driving technologies have been developed by Uber, Google, Nissan, Tesla.
Most of the self-driving systems maintain an internal map. They use lasers, sensors and radars to map their surroundings. Based on the map created, instructions are delivered to the actuators of the vehicle.

Levels of Driving

Level 0: All the major systems are controlled by humans
Level 1: It includes automatic braking or cruise control
Level 2: The cars offer at least two simultaneous automated functions such as steering and acceleration
Level 3: The car is capable of managing all critical safety functions. However, the driver is expected to take over when alerted.
Level 4: Almost autonomous. However, not completely
Level 5: Completely capable of self-driving in every situation

India’s first 3D printed house at IIT-M

Peek inside India's first ever 3D printed house, as IIT Madras creates  history | India News | Zee News
The Union Finance Minister Smt Nirmala Sitaraman inaugurated the first 3D printed house at IIT Madras.

About the House

The House was constructed using indigenous 3D printing technology.
It was built in just five days.
It was built by TVASTA Manufacturing solutions based on a concept by former IIT-M students.

What is 3D printing?

3D printing is the process of making three-dimensional objects through digital instructions. It is also called Additive manufacturing. It is the opposite of Subtractive Manufacturing. Subtractive Manufacturing is cutting away from a large material.
The Global market of 3D printing is expected to reach 34.8 billion USD by 2024.

3D Printing in India

In 2020, the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology released the National Strategy for Additive Manufacturing.
India holds only 1.4% of the global market share in Additive Manufacturing. Within the ASEAN grouping, Singapore, Thailand and Malaysia account for about 80% of the Additive Manufacturing market.

National Strategy for Additive Manufacturing

The key goal is to position India as a global hub for additive manufacturing. It will address the following challenges in 3D printing in India:
Fabrication speed
The surface finish of contoured surfaces
Data Formats
Lack of Additive Manufacturing Standards

3D Printing in Construction

In the construction sector, it takes a lot of hard work to create a detailed, handmade and scaled product. With 3D printing, the task becomes easier especially when complex geometries are involved. It can render detailed models in terms of colour and range of materials.

Types of Additive Manufacturing

According to the National Strategy of Additive Manufacturing, there are seven types of Additive Manufacturing processes. They are as follows:
Vat Photopolymerization
Binder Jetting
Directed Energy Deposition
Material Extrusion
Material Jetting
Powder Bed Fusion
Sheet Lamination

Plain of Jars

Plain of Jars – Phonsavan, Laos - Atlas Obscura
The archaeologists recently found that the jars in the “Plain of Jars” were used as burial sites. They have also found that though the jars could be 3,000 years old, the human remains suggest that people were buried alongside these jars 700 years ago, which is relatively recent.

About the recent Discoveries

According to the scientists, the vessels in the Plain of Jars were placed in the late Second millennium BCE. On the other hand, the human remains come from the 13th century. It is possible that the jars were always used as burial sites.
Some also say that these jars were used for brewing celebratory rice wine and whiskey.
These conclusions were made only after four jar sites were studied. There are plenty of unexplored jar sites in Laos.
The jars were made of different rock types such as Limestone, Granite, Conglomerate, Breccia, Sandstone. However, the majority of the jars were made of sandstone.

Where is the Plain of Jars located?

The Plain of Jars is located in Laos. It is a megalithic archaeological landscape. It consists of thousands of stone jars. These jars are found in the lower foothills of the Xiangkhoang Plateau.
There are more than 90 Jar sites on the plateau. Each site has more than 400 stone jars. Some of the jars have stone lids as well.

About the Jars

The Jars are cylindrical in shape. The bottom of the jar is wider than the top.
In 1930, a French researcher Madeleine Colani concluded that the jars were associated with burial practices. This interpretation was supported by Japanese and Laos archaeologists with the discovery of human remains.
The Plain of Jars became the UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2019.

Michael Collins passed away at the age of 90

Michael Collins, 'forgotten' astronaut of Apollo 11, dies at 90 | US &  Canada News | Al Jazeera
Michael Collins was an American Astronaut. He was the pilot of the Apollo 11 command module. On July 20, 1969, Michael Collins stayed behind when Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong became the first humans to walk on the moon. He recently died at the age of 90.

First indigenous vaccine for fish developed in India

Which condition should be considered in Viral Nervous Necrosis (VNN)  challenge?
The Central Institute of Brackish Aquaculture located in Chennai has developed an indigenous vaccine for Viral Nervous Necrosis. The name of the vaccine is Nodavac-R

Viral Nervous Necrosis

The disease is caused by the Betanodavirus. It mostly affects teleost fish. More than forty species are affected by this virus and most of them are marine species.
This virus transmits through passive diffusion and contact.
The disease mostly occurs in juveniles or larvae. However, it also affects adults.

Viral Nervous Necrosis in India

In India, the disease has been a serious concern affecting freshwater, marine and brackish water fishes largely. They result in 100% mortality in fishes that are in juvenile and larval stages.
Red Spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus is the only genotype found in India. The infected adults are the main carriers. They transmit the virus to their offspring through the eggs.


The best way to control the disease in the country is to vaccinate adult fish and also the fingerlings. The Nodavac-R is safe for all species that are susceptible to Viral Nervous Necrosis. They are to be used in fish hatcheries to bring down the incidence of the disease. Fish Hatchery is the place for the artificial breeding of fishes.

What are Teleost fish?

They range from giant oars fish that measure 7.6 metres in length to minute Angler fish that measure 6.2 millimetres. They are economically important. The Teleost fish are captured for food all over the world.


India ranks second in aquaculture and more than 14.5 million Indians are dependent on fish production.

Somanathan: New Finance secretary

T.V. Somanathan
The Expenditure Secretary T V Somanathan was recently designated as the Finance Secretary by the Appointments Committee of the Cabinet.
Currently, he is the senior-most officer among all the secretaries in the Ministry of Finance. He is a 1987 batch Indian Administrative Service Officer of Tamil Nadu cadre.
Tuhin Kanta Pandey is the current Secretary of the Department of Investment Public Asset Management (DIPAM). Ajay Seth is the current secretary of the Department of Economic Affairs.

Vaishali Hiwase appointed as the first women officer commanding in BRO

Vaishali Hiwase From Wardha Becomes First Woman To Be Appointed Officer  Commanding In BRO
The Border Roads Organisation (BRO) India on April 28, 2021, announced that Vaishali S Hiwase will become the first woman officer to be appointed as Officer Commanding in the Border Roads Organisation (BRO), India.
Vaishali Hiwase will be responsible for providing connectivity through an Indo-China border road, said Border Roads Organisation (BRO), India.

About Border Roads Organisation (BRO), India

The Border Roads Organisation is India’s transnational construction organisation that is committed to meeting the strategic needs of the armed forces.
The BRO India was formed on May 07, 1960, and works under the Ministry of Defence since 2015. Initially, it was under the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways.
The primary role of BRO India is to develop and maintain the road networks in the north and northeast areas near the border.
BRO India performs two different functions during peace and war.
During peace, it develops and maintains the operational road infrastructure in the border areas and contributes to the socio-economic development of the border states.
During a war, it maintains the roads along the Line of Control (LOC) and executes additional tasks assigned by the government.
The 8.8 km-long Atal Tunnel in Himachal Pradesh at an altitude of 3,000 km is one of the biggest infrastructural achievements of BRO India.

Jio Platforms, BYJU's in Time Magazine's 2021 list of 100 most influential companies.

Two Indian firms, Reliance's Jio Platforms and e-learning startup Byju's have been featured in Time Magazine's 2021 list of 100 most influential companies. The Time magazine mentioned on its website that the companies shaping the future are at the heart of the first-ever TIME 100 Most Influential Companies.


Who is the new Finance Secretary of India?
Who ranks second in aquaculture?
Which among the following country is not a part of China's COVID-19 emergency supply reserve initiative?
What is the speed limit of the ALKS?
  • 37 MPH
  • 60 MPH
  • 42 MPH
  • 25 MPH
What is the name of the indigenous vaccine for Viral Nervous Necrosis made in India?
What is the interest rate of the loan provided under the Agriculture Infrastructure Fund?
Which is the first country to announce regulation for the use of self-driving vehicles?
  • China
  • UK
  • Canada
  • US
In how many days were India's first 3D printed house printed?
  • 1 Day
  • 5 Day 
  • 30 Days
  • 12 Days
Who proposed Supply Chain Resilience Initiative?
Which among the following Indian company is listed in Time Magazine's 2021 list of 100 most influential companies?
Who among the following is not a part of the Apollo 11 Mission?
  • Michael Collins
  • Buzz Aldrin
  • Neil Armstrong
  • Jim Lovell
Who is the first woman officer to be appointed as Officer Commanding in the BRO, India?
Which among the following country is not a part of the Supply Chain Resilience Initiative?
  • China
  • India
  • Australia
  • Japan
Where is the Plain of Jars is located?
  • Japan
  • India
  • Myanmar
  • Laos
___ accounts for 45% of imports from China.
Where is India's first 3D printed house situated?
  • IIIT Hyderabad
  • NIT Calicut
  • ‎IIM Bangalore
  • IIT Madras
What is the name of the new system for the UK for driverless cars?

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